Gender Identity is related to individuals’ desire to determine their gender. More specifically, gender identity is related to the internal and personal way in which individuals see themselves. When gender identity agrees with the gender at birth, then we refer to the term Cisgender. However, when the gender at birth does not coincide with the gender identity, then we refer to the term transgender.


It is related to the Biological Sex that defines the individual, at birth, in male or female. It basically regards the individual’s biological characteristics, such as genetic features (internally and externally), chromosomes, hormones etc.


ender Expression regards the individual’s expression of external characteristics. This is pursued through clothing, hairstyle, kinesiology of the individual and through the tone of voice. The individual expresses masculinity or femininity.


Through Sexual Identity, the individual experiences and expresses sexual characteristics. The term of sexual identity also defines the individual’s sexual orientation. Sexual orientation regards an individual’s sexual and emotional attraction to other people of either the same or the opposite sex. Emotional/sexual attraction regards people of the same sex (homosexual), of the opposite sex (heterosexual) and also people who feel attracted to more than one genders (bisexual).


Homophobia relates to the negative expression of behaviors and feelings towards homosexual individuals. It is a form of violence as homosexual individuals suffer racism, verbal and physical attacks due to their different sexual preferences.


Sexism is defined as prejudice or discrimination based on sex. More specifically, it is a set of behaviors, conditions and attitudes that promote stereotypes of gender-based social roles. Sexism is observed in many aspects of social and family life.


Patriarchy is defined as the system of domination intended to reproduce gender-based and unequal power relations within the social, political and family context. The exploitation, victimization and subordination of the victim is observed so that the abuser can prevail due to his stronger sex.


Domestic Violence is defined as the psychological – physical – verbal violence that is experienced within the family context. It includes acts such as coercion, threat or restriction regarding the victim’s freedom and intimidation. Therefore, domestic violence consists of negative acts by the abuser intended to cause pain and suffering to the victim.


Psychological-Emotional Violence is detected in various forms of human relationships. Basic characteristics of psychological abuse are humiliation and verbal/physical attack of the victim to the abuser’s self-esteem and self-confidence satisfaction. It also includes intimidating non-verbal or verbal attacks by the abuser towards the victim (e.g. breaking objects).


Verbal violence are words with a negative content expressed orally. It aims at causing psychological-emotional pain to the victim. It is the most common form of abuse because it is not such a visible form of violence compared to other forms. However, verbal violence can be equally damaging to the victim’s health.


Economic Abuse refers to the economic control exercised by the abuser to the victim. The abuser deprives and prevents the victim from becoming financially independent and managing money for personal expenses. Economic deprivation leads to physical and psychological violence since the abuser is financially stronger than the victim and uses the above methods of abuse to impose himself.


Social Mistreatment regards the control that the abuser has over the victim’s personal life. The victim is alienated from its social, family, professional environment and as a result it sinks deeper into the abusive relationship. Thus, the abuser gains full control over the victim and as a result, the victim’s self-esteem and self-confidence are reduced.


Sexual Abuse is defined as the coercion of the victim into sexual intercourse by the use of physical, verbal and psychological violence by the abuser. This act can lead to the rape of the victim. However, sexual abuse brings about mental, physical, emotional and psychological effects on the life of the victim, thus losing the feeling of security.


Physical Violence includes the intentional acts of the abuser to cause physical pain to the victim resulting in some injury. In this case, the victim feels fear both for itself and its surrounding people (e.g. when children are present). The characteristics of physical violence consist of slaps, kicks, hair pulling, burns on various parts of the victim, attempted suffocation, etc.


Sexual Cyberbullying is known as sextorsion. It is a form of exploitation and coercion where the victim uses the victim’s sexual information (photos, videos) aiming at getting paid, sending more sexual content or meeting the victim.


Sexting refers to sending sexual photos, videos and messages over the phone or through social networking sites. The victim’s sexual material is leaked by the abuser leaving the victim feeling ashamed, self-loathing and psychologically exposed.


In Doxxing, the abuser steals, collects and discloses personal information of a user (victim), aiming at intimidating and harassing the victim’s personal life. This situation ends when the abuser collects and discloses all the victim’s personal information, such as name, address, etc.


Classification of Material regards the collection of the victim’s sexual material by the abuser. This means that it is a product of sexual cyberbullying. The abuser classifies the victim’s sexual material with the goal of easy, fast and targeted searching of the material.


Outing refers to the disclosure of the victim’s personal information without its knowledge or against its will. Such information is sexual identity, gender identity etc.


Surveillance refers to the electronic monitoring of the victim. The victim’s behaviors and activities are monitored by the abuser to collect its personal information.
This is achieved through remote electronic monitoring, that is, through closed circuit television or through the computer, without the victim’s knowledge.


The term Canceling Culture refers to removing the individual from social media or in person or from professional-social circles. It regards persons of communities or companies, who have done or said something that is considered unacceptable, offensive and illegal.


Live Abuse Rooms refer to certain people gathering to witness the deliberate abuse of an individual (victim) against its will.
Ticket purchase by the audience is required.


Crime as Service refers to the creation of various packages by a professional or a group of professionals in order to sell them to others via the Internet. It is now known that you don’t need to be an expert to become an abuser, anyone can search for what they need on the dark web.


Social Engineering refers to the manipulation of the victim by the abuser. Manipulation is carried out so that the abuser may deceit the victim.


Revenge Porn refers to the reproduction and sharing of photos and videos aiming at exposing the victim. The photographic material or videos have sexual content, which the abuser posts on the Internet, with or without the knowledge or consent of the victim. The abuser obtains the sexual material following the sexual relationship he/she had with the victim.